Modern Standard Arabic

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إِنَّ التَّوْفِيقَ مِنَ اللهِ سُبْحَانَهُ َتَعَالَى﴿

٤

3. Relative pronouns ٣) الْأَسْمَاءُ الْمَوْصُولَةُ

The relative pronouns are:

He is the student who was in the university.

هُوَ الطَّالِبُ الَّذِي كَانَ فِي الْجَامِعَةِ.

after sing. masc. nouns

أَلَّذِي

I was in the house that is inside the city.

كُنْتُ فِي الْبَيْتِ الَّذِي هُوَ دَاخِلَ الْمَدِينَةِ.

I saw the student who was from Kuwait

رَأَيْتُ الطَّالِبَةَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ مِنَ الْكُوَيْتِ.

after sing. fem. nouns and non-human plurals

أَلَّتِي

She is in the university which is outside of town.

هِيَ فِي الْجَامِعَةِ الَّتِي هِيَ خَارِجَ الْمَدِينَةِ.

We went by the cars which were from Germany.

مَشَيْنَا بِالسَّيَّارَاتِ الَّتِي كَانَتْ مِن أَلْمَانِيَا.

There are the students who are from Egypt.

هُنَاكَ الطُّلَّابُ الَّذِينَ هُمْ مِنْ مِصْرَ.

after masc. human plurals

أَلَّذِينَ

She is with the students who are from Syria.

هِيَ عِنْدَ الطَّالِبَاتِ اللَّاتِي/ اللَّوَاتِي هُنَّ مِنْ سُورِيَا.

after fem. human plurals

أَللَّاتِي/ أَللَّوَاتِي

He is with the two students who are in two companies.

هُوَ عِنْدَ الطَّالِبَيْنِ اللَّذَيْنِ هُمَا فِي شَرِكَتَيْنِ.

after masc. nouns in the dual

أَللَّذَانِ

They are in the two cars which are from two companies.

هُمَا فِي السَّيَّارَتَيْنِ اللَّتَيْنِ هُمَا مِنْ شَرِكَتَيْنِ.

after fem. nouns in the dual

أَللَّتَانِ

Nominal sentences after the relative pronoun keep their original structure in most cases:

The first component of the relative pronoun ist the article الْـ, therefore the Hamza of أَلَّتِي، أَلَّذِي etc. is a Hamzat waṣl: ﭐلَّتِي، ﭐلَّذِي etc. In colloquial Arabic the relative pronoun is also used with indefinite nouns and is always اِللي, regardless of the noun’s gender or number.

The dual forms of the relative pronoun agree with the noun: Nominative أَللَّذَانِ / أَللَّتَانِ; genitive und accusative أَللَّذَيْن / أَللَّتَيْنِ

Note the different spelling: one Lām: أَلَّذِينَ / أَلَّتِي / أَلَّذِي; two Lām : أَللَّتَانِ / أَللَّذَانِ / أَللَّوَاتِي / أَللَّاتِي

If the relative clause follows an indefinite noun, no relative pronoun is used:

وَصَلَ وَزِيرٌ كَانَ مِنْ مِصْرَ.

A minister arrived who was from Egypt.

Attention: If the subject of the relative clause and the noun being described are not the same a pronominal suffix (↑L6) corresponding to the noun must be added:

٢٦، ٢۷، ٢۸

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