Modern Standard Arabic

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بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ﴿

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2. Short vowels and other auxiliary signs ٢) الْحَرَكَاتُ

In Arabic script short vowels are usually omitted except for some religious texts and elementary schoolbooks. However, special auxiliary signs and markers indicate how the words are to be read. If the auxiliary signs are written, the text is called vocalized text, if not, it is an unvocalized text.

فَتْحَة

Fata

short a sound, small diagonal line above the letter:

بَـ ba, فَـ fa, وَ wa, Fatḥa preceding Alif = long ā: مَا

كَسْرَة

Kasra

short i sound, small diagonal line below the letter:

بـِ bi, لـِ li, مِـ mi, Kasra preceding Yā’ = long ī: كَبِير kabīr (big)

ضَمَّة

amma

short u sound, a small Wāw above the letter:

هُنَا hunā (hier), amma preceding Wāw = long ū: نُون Nūn

سُكُون

Sukūn

Absence of a vowel; small circle above the letter:

أَنْتَ anta (du), مِنْ min (of, from )

شَدَّة

Šadda

Doubling sign in the shape of a small Sīn above the letter; Fatḥa and Ḍamma are written above, and Kasra below the Shadda; the doubled consonant is pronounced clearly prolonged:

شُبَّاك šubbāk (window), مُعَلِّم mu‛allim (teacher )

مَدَّة

Madda

Short, slanted line above Alif (آ) marking Hamza and long ‘ā:

أَلْآنَ al’āna (now), قُرْآن qur’ān ( Qur‘an )

Diphthonge:

Vowel combination: FatḥaWāwSukūn or Fatḥa – Yā’ – Sukūn respectively are used for aw und ay:

لَوْح lau (blackboard), بَيْت bait (house )

The instructor indicates the different vocalizations of كتب and explains the formation of words and phrases. The students repeat reading out loud.

مُكَاتِب

كَاتِبَة

كَاتِب

كُتُب

كِتَاب

كُتِبَ

كَتَبَ

mukātib

kātiba

kātib

kutub

kitāb

kutiba

kataba

correspondent

writer, author (fem.) writer, author

books

book

it was written

to write; he wrote

كِتَابِيّ

كَتَّبَ

مَكْتَبَة

مَكْتَب

مَكْتُوب

أُكْتُبْ

أَكْتُبُ

kitābī

kattaba

maktaba

maktab

maktūb

uktub

aktubu

written (adjective)

to make s.o. write

library

office

written

Write!

I write

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